Virtual Production

Augmented reality (AR)

Technology which integrates virtual elements into a physical environment. See also simulcam.

Data capture

The capture of important details during principal photography such as photographic reference, lighting reference, LIDAR scans, camera metadata, etc.

Data wrangler

A crewmember who records on-set data, which can include camera telemetry, footage, tracking, real-time scene, metadata, etc.

Digital production

The phases of production within a project which involve visual effects development, in which many tasks can occur simultaneously. See also physical production and virtual production.

Extended reality (XR)

An umbrella term for virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR), and all future realities such technology might bring.

Eye tracking

The capture of eye movements and gaze, typically part of facial capture.

Fix it in pre

A philosophical tenet of virtual production referring to the preparation of assets and planning during pre-production; as opposed to the traditional visual effects paradigm of fix it in post.


Technology that creates forces, vibrations, or temperature changes to simulate real-world sensations such as g-force and impact.

Head-mounted display (HMD)

A head-worn device used to display CG content for VR, AR, and MR


The sensation of feeling present in a digital environment.

In-Camera Visual Effects (ICVFX)

The process of capturing visual effects live and in-camera on set, such as within an LED volume.


Shaking or stuttering between frames. Judder can be experienced inside of a VR headset as well as in video imagery.


An assembly file that includes elements such as virtual sets, characters, and performances prepared for shooting with virtual camera, simulcam, in a LED volume, etc.

Mixed reality (MR)

The general term for connecting the physical world with the virtual world. Manipulation of a virtual object can affect the physical world and changes to a physical object can affect the virtual world.

On-Set Virtual Production (OSVP)

Use of virtual production techniques to capture imagery in-camera. See also ICVFX and Extended Reality.

Physical production

The phases of production within a project which involve physical and linear work, as opposed to digital production in which many tasks can occur simultaneously. See also digital production and virtual production.


The visualization of a script or sequence prior to production, used to get investors and studios onboard by demonstrating a concept before it’s greenlit.


The process of visualizing and/or reconceptualizing the visual effects of a film, after the live-action elements have been shot.


A collaborative process that generates preliminary versions of shots or sequences using a virtual environment. It enables filmmakers to visually explore creative ideas, plan technical solutions, and communicate a shared vision for efficient production. Also known as previs.

Rail Rig

A curved virtual Dolly Rig and includes key points in space as well as camera orientation. Can also be called Spline Dolly


The live compositing of virtual elements with live-action. Used for previewing virtual characters and environments during live-action cinematography. See also augmented reality.

Smart stage

A stage purpose-built for virtual production which might include LED walls, tracking systems, real-time animation, performance capture, and VR capabilities.


The use of 3D assets to perform technical analysis on scenes: determine camera type, lenses, rigging, portions of sets which need to be physically built vs. virtual, stunts, etc.

Virtual art department (VAD)

The department which produces all real-time assets such as characters, props, and environments for traditional previs, and virtual production. VAD artists help design and assess which set builds will be practical and which will be digital.They capture physical sets and locations, virtually scout digital locations, and develop preliminary environments that...

Virtual blocking

The use of previs to setup virtual environments for the filmmakers to block action and plan shots.

Virtual production

Virtual production uses technology to join the digital world with the physical world in real-time. It enables filmmakers to interact with the digital process in the same ways they interact with live-action production. Some examples of virtual production include world capture (location/set scanning and digitization), visualization (previs, techvis, postvis), performance...

Virtual reality (VR)

An immersive experience using headsets (HMDs) to generate the realistic sounds, stereo images, and other sensations that replicate a real environment or create an imaginary world.

Virtual scouting

The use of tools such as virtual cameras and VR headsets to share and interact with a model of a set for shot planning and production design.

Virtual space

An area which exists within the virtual world and which may correspond either 1:1 or proportionately with a real-world space.

Volumetric capture

A recording of a performance from multiple angles over a period of time. Typically using a synchronized array of cameras, lights, and sensors surrounding the subject. See also 4D capture.